虛擬群組學習行為之群組認同感探討
An Study of Group Identity in Computer Supported Co-operative Learning

頁數:243-270

作者:游佳萍

Author:Yu, Chia-ping

關鍵詞:虛擬群組,群組認同,群組學習

Keywords:Virtual Team, Group Identity, Cooperative-learning

中文摘要:

近年來,由於資訊科技的蓬勃發展,縮短了時空的差距,提供了更多知識分享的機會,這些虛擬群組的成員是分散在不同區域,藉由網際網路相互溝通、學習、並且完成群組工作,以達到學習的目的,而透過網際網路學習的方式,就是一個很好的例子。然而,在虛擬的群體裡,小組成員往往接觸時間短,亦或是資訊不足,無法充分說明自己的特性,必須依賴明顯的組織特性與價值觀,來定義個人身分。在這樣的情況下,群組認同感影響著每個小組參與者如何定義自己在群組中的角色與位置;換句話說,群組認同也將引導著成員們互助合作。因此,具有高度群組認同感的小組,其組員之間的互動關係較為良好,也大大提昇了群組互動學習的機會。為了瞭解如何建立一個高度互動的學習性虛擬群體,本研究將針對虛擬群體認同感的發展進行探討。



我們的研究紀錄虛擬群體20週互動的資料,再使用內容分析的方法分析資料。根據本研究結果顯示,學生在期初有較多的對話是討論組員之間熟悉且相似的話題,藉以增進彼此更為親近的關係。或者是以過去的學習經驗與成果,快速的定義工作目標、凝聚新成員的認同感。學期之中,累積互動經驗後,組員更清楚彼此的角色與任務定義,而這種專業角色所產生的認同感,提供了更多未來合作與互動的夥伴關係。然而,組員經常發生意見分歧的情況,為了整合不同的意見與想法,小組的認同感適時的對各種歧見形成統一、整合的壓力,將組員的行為引導到小組的規範中。最後從本研究發現,網路學習小組必須依賴小組的認同感,讓學習者在家中學習時,仍然能夠有同儕的支援與規範。

Abstract:

Computer-Mediated-Communication (CMC) technology such as the internet has loosened the constraints of proximity and structure on communication. One specific area of this application is the internet-based learning, often called e-learning, as many educators have begun to integrate the internet into their work. However, these memberships are considerably more blurred than these of the physical world. And participants of virtual teams may ignore information or withdraw from discussion easily. For the virtual teams, while members under time pressure, they make greater use of category-driven information that leads to a faster reduction of the uncertainty. Meanwhile, according to the SIDE (Social Identification/ De-individuation Theory: SIDE), assuming people identify with a salient group, they are more likely to be influenced by it under de-individuating conditions. Thus, if the group identity becomes salient, each member can effectively understand and take on the other's values. In other words, due to the anonymity in the cyber space, the salience of the group is likely to prompt members to work together rapidly even these members lack a common history. Our research goal is to examine how the salience of the group identity may affect learning process in cyber space.



Our preliminary finding shows that, in the beginning, the relevant stereotype or experience might direct members to import their previous impression into the virtual world quickly. When groups become mature, the members' bonding is growing up through collecting information and engaging teamwork. Meanwhile, virtual group's identity is salience; members could assign their work by their competence and have a clear communication structure. Thus, while members face conflicts, group identity guides their members investing energy in a directed way and creating a focus to coordinate. Consequently, for the virtual team members, the group identity guides them to create a virtual learning space and to share their knowledge.

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