我國線上影音內容管制的再塑造:從OTT的發展談起
Reframing the Online Content Regulation in Taiwan: The Rise of Over-the-Top Services

頁數:47-92

作者:葉志良

Author:Chih-Liang Yeh

關鍵詞:OTT、內容管制、視聽媒體服務指令、私人自治、產業自律、官民共治

Keywords:OTT, content regulation, Audiovisual Media Service Directive, private ordering, self-regulation, co-regulation

中文摘要:

透過網際網路收看線上影音內容,已有逐漸取代付費電視的趨勢,這種利用網際網路提供近來被稱作Over the top(OTT)的影音內容,大多不受事前管制,且多為低度管制,但OTT所提供之內容服務卻與受政府管制的廣電產業甚或電信產業所提供之電視服務相互競爭,引發管制不公或管制缺漏之爭論。由於新興OTT服務的發展已重大地改變了消費者使用行為,傳統以執照作為影音內容的管制模式已無法提供解決問題的適當方式,勢必從新的管制概念思考典範轉移(paradigm shift)的可能性。歐洲聯盟透過電子通訊架構指令確立了傳輸與內容分離的二元管制,另制定新的視聽媒體服務指令,將廣電內容與非廣電內容納入相同的管制框架中,並導入私人自治(包含產業自律與官民共治)理念,逐漸將管制轉化為治理的概念(from government to governance)。我國通訊傳播產業的內容管制通常與平臺管制同時置於執照制度當中,經常造成管制錯置之謬誤。本文認為,在今日OTT影音服務如此蓬勃的情況下,如欲以傳統廣電執照制度搭配內容管制,這種管制正當性顯得相當薄弱,應先突破現行平臺與內容綑綁的管制模式,再針對內容方面,考量更為適切的治理模式。

Abstract:

Viewers prefer watching the audiovisual content via the Internet rather than via traditional pay TV services. The content service from the emerging over-the-top (OTT) online services is under a light touch regulation and no ex ante regulation is imposed; however, the OTT and other TV services offered by regulated broadcasting or telecommunication operators have become rivals at the same level that may lead to a controversy of unfairness or regulatory loophole. Since the development of emerging services dramatically alters the way of consuming and the legacy regulation cannot provide proper solutions to the up-to-date questions, we should seek the possibility of a paradigm shift deriving from new regulatory concepts. The European Union's Framework Directive has established the dual regulation by separating transmission and content. In addition, the new Audiovisual Media Service Directive is enacted to incorporate linear and non-linear content into the same regulatory framework and introduce the private ordering (co- and self-regulation) in order to transform the mindset from government to governance. The content regulation of communications industry in Taiwan is usually under the identical licensing system of platform (network/operation) regulation and it often causes the fallacy of regulatory mismatch. This paper argues that the legitimacy of content regulation bundled with legacy broadcast licensing system is weak, especially in the context of vigorous development of OTT audiovisual services today. Therefore, the regulator should adopt an unbundling regulation of separating platform from content, and consider a more appropriate model of governance for content.