輸球也快樂？以情緒階段模式探討運動賽事享樂感Why Do Sports Fans Enjoy a Losing Game? The Perspective of the Stage Model of Emotion
Author：Wang-Ting Lo, Chen-Chao Tao
Keywords：copying strategies, enjoyment, excitation transfer theory, goal conduciveness, stage model of emotion, suspense
Little is known about why and how sports fans enjoy a losing game. Current theories focus either on the result of a sport game (e.g., excitation transfer theory and suspense) or on individual difference (e.g., fanship or affective disposition). They ignore the role game processes played in the elicitation of enjoyment. Based on the stage model of affect and appraisal theory, this paper argues that goal conduciveness (gaining or losing scores during a sport game) and copying strategies (cognitive appraisal of the result of a sport game) may clarify the aforementioned issue. An experiment using baseball games showed that goal conduciveness surpassed the effect of losing a game and led to enjoyment. However, copying strategies failed to moderate the relationship between the result of a sports game and enjoyment. The stage model of affect is partially supported.