新經濟結構下的低度就業與未適當就業New Economy, Underemployment, and Inadequate Employment
Author：Shu-Fen Tseng, Yu-Ching You, Chin-Chang Ho
Keywords：underemployment, mismatch, structural unemployment, reserved army of labor (RAL)
從「台灣地區人力運用調查」資料中顯示，國內就業結構在行業轉變上，較類似Castells所說之德國、日本之「工業化生產模式」，即製造業的就業仍佔一定的比例。但在職業結構的轉變上，則發現國內專業性的職業實佔相當的比例，此與美國的職業結構較為類似。然而，本文進一步發現，台灣在就業結構轉變過程中，重要的並非製造業裡結構性失業問題，亦非服務業中的「成本弊病」問題，而是嚴重的「低度就業」問題。進一步探究各行業的低度就業情況後發現，在分配服務業(distributive services)中，性別因素有其不同影響力(gender effect)，即女性在分配服務業中主要承受「低薪資」的未適當就業情況；男性則有較高的比例於「教育與職業不相稱」之低度就業種類。
This paper will first review existing literatures and empirical results from national statistics on employment transformation, underemployment and gender effects on occupational restructuring. Then, we further examine the relation between unemployment and underemployment by conducting an empirical survey.
From the national statistics, we found that the employment structure by industry in Taiwan is more toward the industrial production model that categorizes a high percentage of industrial employment. However, if we examined the employment structure by occupation, then a similarity toward the US model, which characterizes an increasing and high proportion of professional workers was found.
From the trends of industrial and occupational structures in Taiwan, we argue that neither the increasing unemployment rates in manufacturing sectors nor the newly cost-disease problem in services, but the phenomenon of underemployment will significantly represent the problem of occupational transformation in Taiwan. A gender effect of underemployment is found in distributive services, women in distributive services suffer more on the income-related inadequate while men reveal a high proportion of educational mismatch.
The exploratory study reported the problem of long-term unemployment is an important issue in the unemployed. In particular, female, elder, and less educated respondent show a higher risk of long-term unemployment. More than one third of current employed work changed from manufacture to services. An industrial crowd out effect of aged, less educated and previously manufacturing labors toward low skill and low pay personal service sectors was found. For aged and less educated workers, not only the risk of unemployed is high, even they found the jobs, they were suffered the high propensity of working in the less skill and low pay service sectors. They were more likely to become the reserved army of labor who might become the disposable and cheaper labors.